Background: High flow nasal therapy (HFNT) is a technique in which humidified and heated gas is delivered to the airways through the nose via small nasal prongs at flows that are higher than the rates generally applied during conventional oxygen therapy. The delivered high flow rates combine mixtures of air and oxygen and enable different inspired oxygen fractions ranging from 0.21 to 1. HFNT is increasingly used in critically ill adult patients, especially hypoxemic patients in different clinical settings.
Main body: Non invasive ventilation delivers positive pressure (end-expiratory and inspiratory pressures or continuous positive airway pressure) via different external interfaces. In contrast, HFNT produces different physiological effects that are only partially linked to the generation of expiratory positive airway pressure. HFNT and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are interesting non-invasive supports in perioperative medicine. HFNT exhibits some advantages compared to NIV because HFNT is easier to apply and requires a lower nursing workload. Tolerance of HFNT remains a matter of intense debate, and it may be related to selected parameters. Patients receiving HFNT and their respiratory patterns should be closely monitored to avoid delays in intubation despite correct oxygenation parameters.
Conclusion: HFNT seems to be an interesting noninvasive support in perioperative medicine. The present review provides anesthesiologists with an overview of current evidence and practical advice on the application of HFNT in perioperative medicine in adult patients.
Keywords: High flow nasal therapy, Noninvasive ventilation, Acute respiratory failure, Perioperative medicine
Fuente: BMC Anesthesiology